Ubuntu (or other Linux) on the Asus Transformer Book T100


This post is now out of date — see the latest update, here

The T100 is a nice little convertible tablet/netbook.

My aim is to get a “perfect” Ubuntu installation on the T100, such that it can be used successfully as a daily machine in both netbook and tablet modes.

GLXGears in tablet mode

GLXGears in tablet mode

Unfortunately Linux support right now is quite rudimentary, and installing it requires us to jump through a few hoops. The situation is improving rapidly however. So I will keep updating this How-to as new drivers become available and things improve. See the latest update.


Eventually I expect hardware support for the T100 will be excellent, but we are not there yet. In order to get the best support possible, we will be using bleeding-edge builds and the latest Linux kernels. If you’d just prefer an easy life, come back in October and just install Ubuntu 14.10.

That said, this little convertible is a lovely machine, and Ubuntu/unity works very nicely on it — finally Unity has a purpose! The more people get on for the ride now, the quicker we can test and iron out bugs.

*** This post will constantly be updated as in-kernel support improves ***

Current status (updated 23/03/2014)

I’ll update this whenever I manage to get new things working. I will only add items to the How-to below that are confirmed to work well.

  • Graphics: Working with accelerated (3D) graphics 7/10
  • Wifi: Working, but often drops connection [working on improving this] 6/10
  • Touchscreen: Working, with multi-touch out of the box 10/10
  • Sound: Working, with patches 8/10
  • SD card reader: Working, some configuration needed (thanks akira) 9/10
  • Battery monitoring: Working, with patches 8/10
  • Tablet keys (Volume up/down etc): Not yet working 0/10
  • Power management (Suspend/resume): Not yet working 0/10
  • Orientation sensor: Not yet working [currently testing] 0/10
  • Backlight & ambient light sensor: Backlight not adjustable. Light sensor works with custom driver 5/10
  • Touchpad: Working, no multitouch yet 8/10
  • Shutdown / reboot: Working, with patches 9/10

1. First steps: Preparing for the Ubuntu Install

First things first, update using Asus LiveUpdate to the latest “BIOS” available. At the time of writing, that is v304. Do any backing up of Windows / recovery partitions. I’ll leave the details of that up to you.

Before we attempt to boot Linux on the T100, we need to do some preparation, so start in Windows. Download the latest daily AMD64 build of Ubuntu 14.04 from here.

Download the Rufus USB bootable image creator, and “burn” your downloaded ISO to a spare USB stick. In Rufus, for “Partition scheme and target system type”, choose “GPT partition scheme for UEFI computer”. For “File System”, choose “FAT32″, and leave the rest at default. At the bottom, check “Create a bootable disk using: ISO Image” and select your downloaded Ubuntu image, then hit “Start”.

When your USB stick is ready, close Rufus. It should now be browseable in Windows. Browse to the EFI\Boot directory, and place this bootloader (named bootia32.efi) there. This bootloader was compiled from source using the latest Grub2. If you don’t trust random downloaded files from the Internet (and you shouldn’t), you can find the instructions for building it yourself here.

2. Booting the Live Image

Now, insert the USB stick and reboot to the firmware (BIOS). You can do this in Windows by holding shift when pressing “restart”, then touching Troubleshoot → Advanced Options → UEFI Firmware Settings → Restart.

Once there, disable SecureBoot, then visit the boot options, and ensure the USB stick is the first in the list.

Press F10 to save settings, and after a few seconds you will be in the GRUB bootloader. Before the timeout, immediately hit CTRL-ALT-DEL. This will reboot the computer again, but this time you will have the laptop’s native resolution (rather than being stuck at 800×600 from the “bios”).

In the GRUB menu, highlight “Try Ubuntu”, and press “e” to edit it. In the editing screen, scroll down to the command line options, where it says “quiet splash”. Delete “splash” and replace it with:
video=VGA-1:1368x768e reboot=pci,force

Then press F10 to boot. You should get all the way to the Desktop.

3. Installing the distro

Click the “Install Ubuntu” desktop icon to install Ubuntu permanently.

The partitioning scheme you choose is up to you — but you will need to preserve the EFI partition, so don’t just partition the entire disk for Ubuntu.

In addition to the EFI partition, I prefer separate /, /home and /boot mount points; but that is up to you. You could squish down the Windows partition and created the additional partition(s), or just delete the Windows partition altogether if you don’t need it.

When done, reboot, leaving the USB stick in.

4. First boot

Ubuntu won’t boot yet. We’ll need to compile our own bootia32.efi to use with Grub. To do that we really need a wireless connection. So we’ll boot manually, fix up wireless, and fix Grub.

Boot back to the Grub welcome screen on the USB stick. Hit ‘c’ to drop to a Grub command line.

You’ll need to provide Grub with the path to your kernel and initrd to boot. First, the path to the kernel:

linux (hd2,gpt5)/boot/vmlinuz-3.13-xxxx root=/dev/mmcblk0p5 video=VGA-1:1368x768e reboot=pci,force

Here, (hd2, gpt5) refers to the fifth partition on the third disk (Partition numbering begins at 1 and disk numbering begins at 0). This will vary depending on how yo uinstalled and your T100 model. On my 32GB model, Grub assigns the USB stick as hd0, the read-only recovery flash chip as hd1, and the main internal flash as hd2. gpt5 is the fifth partition, but it will depend on how you installed.

Fortunately, grub has good auto-completion features, so you can hit twice as you type, and grub will list possible completions for you — just keep trying until you see the various vmlinuz kernels.

The root=/dev/mmcblk0p5 will also depend on the partition you installed to. It will be your root partition. Unfortunately this can’t be auto-completed, so if you can’t remember your partition setup, you’ll need to try by trial and error.

To complete the line, press Enter.

Then you need to specify the location of your initrd. This is easy, it’s in the same place as the kernel:
initrd (hd2,gpt5)/boot/initrd-3.13-xxxx

Then Enter.

Then boot with:

With luck after hitting Enter, you’ll boot through to Ubuntu. If not, don’t be disheartened — keep trying.

5. Enabling wifi

To get further, we’ll need wifi. However internal wifi on the T100 isn’t terribly reliable under Linux yet. If you have access to another wifi dongle, you might want to try that until you’re fully set up.

The driver is already included, but it needs some firmware and a copy of your system’s wifi nvram:

  • Grab the Wifi firmware here (from the Linux-wireless repository). Copy it to /lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43241b4-sdio.bin
  • The NVRAM is difficult to get right now, as 32-bit EFI runtime services aren’t yet available on 64-bit. But you can use my NVRAM — get it here and copy it to /lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43241b4-sdio.txt

You’ll now need to reboot using the same procedure again, and wifi should be working.

However, I found wifi performance to be very poor — there are some bugs in the driver. This is improved somewhat with the latest kernel, which we will upgrade to in a later step. I managed to improve performance somewhat by using the NVRAMs from other platforms, and splicing in some of the missing variables. You can see my tries here. In all cases, copy them to /lib/firmware/brcm/brcmfmac43241b4-sdio.txt , and reboot or unload/reload the wifi driver:

sudo modprobe -r brcmfmac
sudo modprobe brcmfmac

If you find a firmware/nvram combination that works really well, please share.

6. Completing the installation

We can’t keep rebooting like this… so let’s fix Grub. This assumes you now have a working Internet connection.

We’ll need some build tools — install them:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install git bison libopts25 libselinux1-dev autogen m4 autoconf help2man libopts25-dev flex libfont-freetype-perl automake autotools-dev libfreetype6-dev texinfo ia32_libs build_essential

Then get the Grub source:
git clone git://git.savannah.gnu.org/grub.git

Now build it:

cd grub
./configure --with-platform=efi --target=i386 --program-prefix=""

And install to efi:

cd grub-core
sudo ../grub-install -d . --efi-directory /boot/efi/ --target=i386

This will create a directory, ‘grub’, in your EFI partition.
We want to copy the grubia32.efi from there to the location Ubuntu created during installation:

cd /boot/efi/EFI
sudo cp grub/grubia32.efi ubuntu/grubx64.efi

This should be enough to allow you to boot from the “ubuntu” option in your EFI firmware.

Before you boot, let’s add the default command line options to Grub.

Open /etc/default grub in a text editor:
sudo nano /etc/default/grub

And edit the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT exactly as we did before. When done, hit ctrl-o to save then ctrl-x to exit. Then, to update Grub:
sudo update-grub

Congratulations! you should now be able to boot/reboot directly to the Ubuntu desktop!

7. Upgrading to the bleeding edge to improve hardware support

There are still a lot of things to get working. The best way to improve hardware support further is to use the latest development branches of the kernel.

Unfortunately (as at the time of writing), even the latest development Linux kernel (3.14-rc5) lacks some key hardware support for Baytrail tablets. But we can improve that by pulling in latest patches for sound. We’ll also compile in a new experimental feature for accessing 32-bit EFI services from a 64-bit system, as we need that for tools like efibootmgr to work. Finally, we’ll pull in the latest wireless fixes and the latest power management changes. We need to power management changes for our battery patch.

I recommend you compile this on a fast desktop computer with a decent network connection. You could do this on your tablet, but it would be extremely slow. For the following instructions, I assume you’re using a recent 64-bit Ubuntu on a desktop. If you’re using 32-bit, you’ll have to change the instructions to cross-compile — I’ll leave that up to you (and Google).

On your compiling machine, install the packages you’ll need to build a kernel:

sudo apt-get install git build-essential fakeroot crash kexec-tools makedumpfile kernel-wedge libncurses5 libncurses5-dev
sudo apt-get build-dep linux-image-$(uname -r)

Then create a working directory, step into it, and download the sources you’ll need:

mkdir kernel
cd kernel
git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git
cd source
git remote add sound git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/broonie/sound.git
git remote add efi git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/mfleming/efi.git
git remote add pmfixes git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rafael/linux-pm.git
git remote add wifinext git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/linville/wireless-next.git
git fetch sound
git fetch efi
git fetch pmfixes
git fetch wifinext

Then merge the updates from sound, efi mixed-mode, power management and wireless onto the mainline kernel:

git merge sound/topic/intel
git merge efi/efi-for-mingo
git merge pmfixes/linux-next
git merge wifinext/master

There are still some patches we need to apply. Step back and create a patch directory, and download some patches into it:

cd ..
mkdir patches
git clone https://github.com/jfwells/linux-asus-t100ta.git

Now apply the patches:

cd ../source
git apply ../patches/linux-asus-t100ta/patches/*

They should all apply without error.

Now we’re almost ready to compile. Before we do, we need a .config file to tell the kernel build system what parts we want to compile. Start by copying over the current one from your T100. You’ll find it at /boot/config-xxxxxx , where xxxxxx is the version of the currently running kernel. Grab it and copy it to the kernel/source directory you’ve just been working in. Rename it to .config .

Now we need to update the config:

make oldconfig

This will prompt you to set configuration for the things that will be newer in this kernel. Select ‘m’ to compile relevant drivers as a module where offered (in particular all the ‘soc’ sound options). Select ‘Y’ to enable EFI mixed mode where offered. Leave the kernel debugging options off.

When done, we’re ready to compile. We can just do it the quick and dirty way:

make clean
make -j8 deb-pkg

The above assumes this is on a quad-core processor with hyperthreading (hence the ‘-j8′, or 8 simultaneous processes). Reduce this number appropriately if you have less cores.

This will take some time (anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour. If you’re doing it directly on the T100, all bets are off – it could take all day.

When complete, you’ll have a set of .deb packages in the directory above (i.e. in the “kernel” directory). We need “linux-headers-xxxxx.deb” and “linux-image-xxxxx.deb”. Choose the smaller of the linux-image packages, the one without debug symbols. Copy them over to your T100.

On the T100, install the new kernel with:

cd <folder where you saved the .debs>
dpkg -i ./*.deb

Then reboot!

8. Sound

Sound won’t yet be working. First, you’ll need some more firmware. For now, you can grab it from ChromiumOS, here. Unpack the archive and copy the files to /lib/firmware/intel .

The drivers are in a bit of a raw state — they expose about a hundred oddly-named mixer and DSP devices to ALSA. We can set some defaults. Grab the defaults file here, and copy it to /var/lib/alsa/asound.state .

Reboot, and force-load the state file into alsa with :
sudo alsactl -f /var/lib/alsa/asound.state restore

For me, my sound still sounds pretty awful. I need to mute the distorted right channel in alsamixer, then at least it is bearable. I also find the CPU runs a bit hot with sound enabled. Let me know if you have more luck.

* please be careful — my sound is permanently distorted, even in Windows now; keep the volume low when testing the various options *

9. SD card reader

The SD card reader works with newer kernels, but the sdhci module needs some configuration. Create a new file:

sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/sdhci.conf

Then add the following:

options sdhci debug_quirks=0x8000

ctrl-o then ctrl-x to save and exit, then:

update-initramfs -u -k all

Then reboot and the card reader should be working.

9. Other drivers

So far, the only additional driver I have working is the light sensor. Please download and test my driver here.

9. Other scripts

I have made some additional small scripts to improve usability.

Dock scripts: These enable/disable the Onboard on-screen keyboard when you undock/dock the tablet. Set up the onscreen keyboard first in System Settings → Accessibility, then the scripts will enable/disable they keyboard for text fields.

Rotate script: This will rotate the screen and touchscreen when run. You can place the desktop entry on your desktop. We can connect the orientation sensor to this later, once that is working.

Workable... for now.

Workable… for now.

470 thoughts on “Ubuntu (or other Linux) on the Asus Transformer Book T100

  1. admin

    @john you may need to hold back Grub updates. On the ISO — not yet; I think this current status of a complex installation is very temporary (and changing frequently). Once we have a stable set of drivers or kernel patches it’d make sense to set up a PPA to make things easy, for sure.

    @Adrian not sure what difference the .config makes — the only difference might be the broadcom debugging options. The code you’re compiling is probably making all the difference though.

    If you’re having trouble with the touchscreen, make sure you don’t add the patch for GPIO and LPSS ACPI IDs that was reverted previously — it results in an IRQ conflct and all the i2c and gpio stuff stops working.

  2. brainwreck

    @ admin — well i got sound to work sounds good to me i made a filename.txt for you ill see about putting somewhere for you however everytime i reboot i lose sound and have to do the
    sudo alsactl -f /var/lib/alsa/asound.state in order to get sound back any ideas how to make this permanent??


  3. admin

    @brainwreck tha would be much appreciated! Thank you.

    Try storing it in /var/lib/asound.state instead ?

  4. Julien


    I own a t100 and want to use ubuntu on it, so I was quite happy to find your blog – great job! I’ll keep a close eye on this post.

  5. john

    im finding you need to sudo apt-get update before running

    sudo apt-get install git bison libopts25 libselinux1-dev autogen m4 autoconf help2man libopts25-dev flex libfont-freetype-perl automake autotools-dev libfreetype6-dev texinfo ia32_libs build_essential

    also ia32_libs and build_essential are not needed.

  6. john

    cato@cato-T100TA:~$ git clone git://git.savannah.gnu.org/grub.git
    Cloning into ‘grub’…
    fatal: unable to connect to git.savannah.gnu.org:
    git.savannah.gnu.org[0:]: errno=No route to host

  7. john

    I downloaded today’s latest ISO of trusty and now I think they pushed grub into it. Now after installing I get can’t terminaylte efi services when I get to step 4. What do I do

  8. brainwreck

    Is it not giviing you the option to do a grub shell? everything else should be the same, it probably overwrote your grubx64.efi with 64bit efi insted of the 32bit efi that we created, you probably need to repaste the grub/grubia32.efi to the ubuntu/grubx64.efi in the EFI partition to restore that… theorectically should work the same from there…

  9. john

    When I boot the USB, drop to grub by pressing c, punch in everything I get error: couldn’t terminate EFI services. I replaced files 3 times. Same results

  10. john

    I noticed you have to reboot and reenter uefi and select the USB to boot just to get around that error because it seems to remain once it does it even after reboot. Then there is the problem with newer daily ISO that you might as well delete everything and repaste in the efi partition like you said. Now booting finally

  11. brainwreck

    If you have trouble with sound sticking after reboots run this:

    sudo alsactl -f /var/lib/alsa/asound.state restore to load driver

    followed by

    sudo alsactil -l restore

    to write it to /var/lib/alsa/asound.state.lock

    that is what i have noticed to keep the sound reloading after reboots

    would you agree @admin??

    also i have tried all of the brcmfmac43241b4-sdio.txt and all of the modfied nvram’s still seens like im having the best luck with nvram3 file

    keep up the good work!

  12. john

    I’m having trouble with all the text for WiFi. I can’t connect to unprotected or protected networks. Even my home one it pops up asking for the password which has never changed. This is since reinstalling. Been trying now for an hour. Rebooted many times and modprobed -r ***** just no luck

  13. admin

    @john, no need to use newer isos, you can keep up to date with update manager.

    There does seem to be a bug with the firmware and older versions of grub. Sometimes it works if you’re coming straight from the firmware, but not if you boot directly.

    For wifi, try using nvram3.txt. Rename it and reboot.


    Thanks for the skund file! Its identical to my asound.state… Anyway after a fiddle around in alsamixer followed by another restore, it’s better now :-)

    Agree the wifi is annoying. im currentky using mine that I exported from the efi var jnside linux. Stable but very weak. Its identical to the one I posted, except foe a couple of garbage characters at the start… So I’m at a loss.

  14. john

    I am using nvram3 and I copied the bcr***** file as well and rebooted many times. It basically times out over and over and pops up asking for the password and doesn’t connect to networks needing no password

  15. brainwreck

    @john did you put the mac address of your wifi card in the brcm43241b4-sdio.txt need to make sure that matches your card….

  16. Merci bien l’ami tu bas bien sauver, ton tuto est complet, claire c’est un bon point de départ.
    Désolé je ne cause pas bien l’anglais :).

    —- Google translate —-

    Thank you good friend down well to save you, your tutorial is complete, clear this is a good starting point.
    Sorry I did not speak much English :).
    Thank you.

  17. brainwreck


    open a terminal and type

    you should see the following output

    wlan1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 74:d0:2b:a5:4c:12 <—- WRITE THIS DOWN OR COPY IT
    inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
    inet6 addr: fe80::76d0:2bff:fea5:4c12/64 Scope:Link
    RX packets:38286 errors:0 dropped:32 overruns:0 frame:0
    TX packets:21849 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
    collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
    RX bytes:50356999 (50.3 MB) TX bytes:1629555 (1.6 MB)

    open the nvram3-modified in gedit you will see the following code
    macaddr=74:d0:2b:a5:4c:12 <———- CHANGE THIS NUMBER TO MATCH THE NUMBER YOU WROTE OR COPIED FROM ifconfig

    save the file to /lib/firmware/brcm/brcm23241b4-sdio.txt and reboot you should get connections consistently now

    any more questions just ask…

  18. brainwreck

    No payment required here, just help out ppl by answering questions and getting more people to use linux… all the payment i need :)

  19. brainwreck

    @ John post your ifconfig output for us and I can try and send you the file what’s your email?

  20. brainwreck

    Just put it on the default DEV/MMCBLK0 it doesnt install to a MBR so it wont wreck anything… it will write your bootloader files to the EFI parition under the folder ubuntu… then follow instructions

  21. 路人 乙

    Oh…what’s wrong?
    If I input this in grub(picture):
    It would become to:

    …and then i didn’e what should i do
    It’s normal?

    Or if i input this(2 cmd different is this without “.efi.signed”):

    It will into a infinite loop……
    Looks like…

    Could you mail your iso let me try?

    (My English is very poor,maybe have many grammar wrong)

  22. john

    Okay I downloaded todays ISO and installed Ubuntu. still no wifi and here are my settings. I get a list of networks but it does that connecting pulsing wifi symbol but then it pops up asking for my password. Then if I try to use a non secure network it just tries to connect until it just pops up saying NOT CONNECTED. This is really strange because I changed nothing in the way I set up the computer, just used a later ISO. until It is fixed I really can’t do much

    cato@cato-T100TA:~$ sudo modprobe -r brcmfmac
    [sudo] password for cato:
    cato@cato-T100TA:~$ sudo modprobe brcmfmac
    cato@cato-T100TA:~$ ifconfig
    lo Link encap:Local Loopback
    inet addr: Mask:
    inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
    UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1
    RX packets:32 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
    TX packets:32 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
    collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
    RX bytes:2528 (2.5 KB) TX bytes:2528 (2.5 KB)

    wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr bc:ee:7b:4a:80:fd
    inet6 addr: fe80::beee:7bff:fe4a:80fd/64 Scope:Link
    RX packets:33 errors:0 dropped:33 overruns:0 frame:0
    TX packets:21 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
    collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
    RX bytes:6908 (6.9 KB) TX bytes:3718 (3.7 KB)

    cato@cato-T100TA:~$ sudo modprobe -r brcmfmac
    cato@cato-T100TA:~$ sudo modprobe brcmfmac

    V#Sample variables file for BCM94324A1 iPA+iLNA FCBGA REF board
    # NV VER:
    # 20130829 Change Note:
    # Enable Out of band GPIO for connected standby
    # 20130809 Change Note:
    # REMOVE 2×2 BTC effect BIT
    # Change CCODE to XV/1
    # 20130816 Change Note:
    # Change PA parameters for TSSI
    # 20130830 Change Note:
    # Change Power-per-rate settings
    # 20130903 Change Note:
    # Change Power-per-rate settings

    # Out-of-band GPIO wakeup

  23. admin

    @john . Yes, not much to report. I’ve been trying various builds and fixes, but no further improvements to report yet.

    Building kernel 3.14-rc7 now with some new patches, will see if I can wring any improvements out of it!


  24. john

    so crazy question, will this device be able to support the touch version of Ubuntu when they release it. I mean if we have the basic drivers for regular Ubuntu, is it transferable to the Touch version?

  25. admin

    @John not likely for a while, it’s geared towards ARM. I think the early versions are mostly an Android stack too, from what I understand.

  26. QQlka

    You’ve got a typo at
    “git merge sound/topic/intel
    git merge efi/efi-for-mingo
    git merge pmfixes/linux-next
    git mmerge wifinext/master” <-
    should be merge ;)
    By the way, as far as I got, everything is perfectly working! Many thanks for that tutorial, without it I wouldn't get anywhere on my own

  27. Hi,
    I read your post for some time and I thank you for the tutorial and for returns.
    I installed Ubuntu and it is promising, I like to know if with the latest kernel and the latest patches sound working properly?
    Another question I have installed Debian, and the touch screen does not work with the kernel of deposits if I recompile the kernel with the Ubuntu .config It works.
    I would like to know the name of drivers for the touch screen for enabling in the Debian .config Thank you.

    PS: Sorry but I’m very bad in English.

  28. admin


    No problem.

    Yes, sound works if you follow the directions above

    touchscreen seems to be using the i2c_hid and hid_multitouch modules, but you also need the i2c-designware-platform and i2c-designware modules loaded for it to work.

  29. 路人 乙

    Reading package lists… Done
    Building dependency tree
    Reading state information… Done
    E: Unable to locate package ia32_libs
    E: Unable to locate package build_essential

  30. Hello,
    Debian I dropped for yet. Even with the modules loaded it does not work. Any way Debian is not yet ready (no gesture).
    I have reinstall Ubuntu latest release last kernel with your patches …
    By cons I have two questions : for the sound firmware ChromiumOS and asound.state in tutorial is ok (not distorted)?
    For wifi I have a problem it does not detect my card.
    I have try with differents firmware and NVRAMs with the tutorial and firmware compile but ifconfig and iwconfg do not see.
    Do you have any ideas?

  31. Adrian

    I use Gentoo on T100 and now TouchScreen work, but I still search why, it isn’t only i2c module need to use. I still search and optimalization .config kernel form Asus T100.

    Now I need only maybe 25min to compile new kernel :D

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>